The Canada Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) has been in effect since 2017, and it is meant to promote commerce and free trade between the provinces and territories of Canada. However, there are some exceptions to the agreement that are worth noting.

One of the major exceptions to the CFTA is the procurement of government goods and services. Each province and territory has the right to prioritize its own businesses and industries when it comes to government contracts. This means that companies outside of a particular province or territory may face barriers when trying to bid on government contracts within that jurisdiction.

In addition, some industries have been excluded from the CFTA entirely. For example, the supply-managed dairy, poultry, and egg industries are exempt from the agreement, as these industries are heavily regulated by the federal government. These industries are protected by a quota system, which restricts the amount of supply that can enter the market, thus ensuring that Canadian producers can maintain their pricing power.

Another exception to the CFTA is the protection of cultural industries. Canada has a long history of protecting its cultural industries, such as film, television, and music, from foreign competition. The CFTA recognizes this need for cultural protection and allows provinces and territories to maintain measures that support Canadian cultural industries.

Finally, the CFTA includes a dispute resolution mechanism to address any issues that arise between provinces and territories. If one province or territory believes another is not following the terms of the agreement, they may file a complaint with the CFTA Secretariat. The dispute will then be resolved through consultations, negotiations, or a formal dispute resolution process.

In conclusion, while the CFTA aims to promote free trade between Canadian provinces and territories, there are some exceptions to the agreement. These include government procurement, supply-managed industries, cultural protection, and a dispute resolution mechanism. It is important for businesses operating in Canada to be aware of these exceptions when considering cross-provincial or cross-territorial operations.